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01:17: Hey everyone, it's Josh and for this week's Select I've chosen our 2016 episode on
01:22: Terasars.
01:23: Not flying dinosaurs, Terasars, they were their own thing.
01:27: And this episode brings out the inner child paleontologists of me.
01:31: I hope it does for you too.
01:32: There's only one way to find out, sit back, relax, and enjoy the episode.
01:41: Welcome to Stuff You Should Know, a production of I Heart Radio.
01:51: Hey and welcome to the podcast.
01:53: I'm Josh Clark, there's Charles W. Chuck Bryant.
01:56: It's just the two of us batching it today.
01:59: Yeah.
02:00: That's my dad used to say if he had to take care of me while my mom was working.
02:04: We're just batching it.
02:05: As that was, was that what he said?
02:07: Yeah.
02:08: I thought that was a relatively new term.
02:11: No, I mean, at least the early 80s.
02:13: All right.
02:15: Maybe my dad was like way ahead of his time.
02:17: Why isn't there been a movie called Batchin' It?
02:20: I don't know.
02:20: That's actually pretty obvious.
02:22: The fact that it was around as a word in the 80s makes me even more surprised
02:27: that there's not a movie called Batchin' It.
02:29: That like the protagonist has to put on like a car wash
02:32: to save their business or something like that.
02:35: Yeah. Oh, and Wilson.
02:37: What did he do?
02:38: Well, he would just be the star of Batchin' it.
02:40: I imagine, right?
02:41: I guess so.
02:43: Could that guy be any more charming than he is?
02:45: He's pretty charming.
02:47: Speaking of charming Chuck,
02:49: let me introduce you to a wonderful little beast named Ketzel Kolatus Northropi.
02:59: Are you familiar?
03:00: Sure.
03:01: So Ketzel Kolatus is named after the Aztec flying serpent god,
03:07: God, Quetzalco Auto. So it makes sense. But this guy was a real thing. Not to put down the Aztecs
03:15: beliefs or anything like that, but this is a verifiable beast at one point, particularly in the late
03:22: Cretaceous period. And it's what you would probably call a teradactyl. But if you call it a
03:28: teradactyl, you'd be dead wrong, pal. What it really is is a terasaur. And there's a lot of misunderstandings that we're gonna sort through.
03:38: But the most important point is that this beast right here
03:41: is 20 feet tall, this tall is a giraffe.
03:44: And it had a wingspan akin to about an F-16 fighter jet.
03:49: And it was a bad mammajama.
03:54: That's that for a lead-in.
03:55: That's good.
03:57: I like it.
03:58: I didn't even use the way back machine.
04:00: Just trim the fat.
04:02: Pfft, gone.
04:02: Oh, you don't even need that old clunky thing anymore?
04:05: I would just use our imaginations.
04:07: We're not actually in the Cretaceous Period,
04:09: like we would be if we had used the Wayback machine.
04:12: Oh, okay.
04:13: Yeah, these Tara are starts with the P, of course, the Silent P.
04:17: That is from Greek, meaning winged lizards, and that's pretty on point, because they were reptiles.
04:25: They were not dinosaur-ers.
04:27: Yes, big, big distinction here.
04:30: They're close.
04:31: sister to a dinosaur perhaps. They're from the same clodate, which is
04:35: archosaurs, but it's a really wide clodate, and all that means is that they
04:39: have in the very remote past some single common ancestor with dinosaurs.
04:43: Yeah, and they were, they were around roughly the same time period and
04:48: definitely went away in the same fashion. So it's, it's normal, I think, for
04:53: people to say, look at that tarot actal, look at that flying dinosaur, even though
04:58: and neither one of those is necessarily correct.
05:01: Yeah, so just to get this across one more time, terrassores were not flying dinosaurs.
05:07: They were flying reptiles, but they weren't dinosaurs.
05:10: They weren't birds either, and to confuse things even further,
05:14: there were birds around at the time of the dinosaurs and the time of the terrassores, and to confuse things even further,
05:22: there were such things as actual flying dinosaurs,
05:25: We call them Velasa Raptors.
05:28: Right.
05:29: And these vertebrates actually were flying
05:35: long before birds and bats by like millions and millions of years.
05:40: Yeah, I think this has to work, sorry to call.
05:42: This is a good one.
05:42: I gotta give big ups to Clint Pumphrey.
05:46: Yeah, pretty good.
05:47: The Pumphrey.
05:47: Yeah, he sounds like an action house to a forks writer.
05:50: Clint Pumphrey.
05:52: Just be frock.
05:54: You know?
05:54: Uh-huh.
05:56: But he said, I think, 80 million years difference, 80 million years before.
06:01: Yeah, I mean, that's great.
06:02: That's a lot of years.
06:04: It is.
06:05: So, there's a lot of like confusing stuff flying around.
06:08: And I think there's one other thing we should probably address right out of the gate is
06:11: that you shouldn't call them teradactyls, even though a lot of people do.
06:17: are actually a specific genus of tarot source.
06:22: So to call all tarot source, tarot actles would be incorrect,
06:26: but you could call all tarot actles tarot source, okay?
06:30: Yeah, and technically like if you have seen this thing
06:34: in movies a lot that they say, that's a tarot actle.
06:37: What you've probably been looking at this whole time
06:39: is one of the species and they're potentially up to 200
06:44: these species. Right now I think they've identified about 130-ish, but a Terra no-don.
06:56: Is that how you'd say it?
06:58: Terra no-don? That's what I would go on with.
07:01: I like Terra no-don. That's probably what you've been seeing in movies all this time that
07:06: you've been saying that's a Terra dactyl. If you look up an image search of the Terra no-don,
07:13: You'll say that's a tarot dactyl because I saw it in King Kong.
07:17: Yeah, it's like this giant wing beast with kind of short stubby legs and a huge wing
07:21: span and like a weird crest on its head and a long pointy beak.
07:24: A tarot dactyl, everybody knows what a tarot dactyl is, don't be an idiot.
07:28: Yeah, you saw it in King Kong in 1933.
07:30: So the same thing in Jurassic Park 3 in 2001, right?
07:34: Things hadn't changed all that much, but in that time span, it's actually kind of surprising
07:39: because our understanding of tarisars had increased dramatically, and yet we were still just basically
07:47: thinking of them exclusively as tarot actuals, which isn't the case.
07:51: Yeah, there was a paleontologist named OC Marsh, who was a pretty good name for a paleontologist.
07:58: Sure. He collected these first fossils and what is now, and was then, Western Kansas, in the late 1800s, like 1870.
08:11: And they've been, well, I was about to say,
08:13: they've been digging up lots of these cents and then they sort of have,
08:17: but not nearly as many as other types of fossils
08:21: because these fossils are really highly breakable
08:25: and dissolvable and they're tough to get a hold of
08:29: and keep in one piece throughout the process.
08:31: Yeah, we should talk about that.
08:33: Like one of the reasons there is so little understanding
08:35: of tarisars is because they don't fossilize very well.
08:39: Because their bones were not designed to be fossilized,
08:42: they were designed to allow these giant reptiles to fly.
08:46: Yeah.
08:46: They didn't say like, oh, we need to be designed to leave our mark later.
08:50: It's like we want to fly.
08:52: Right.
08:53: Exactly.
08:53: So early on, I think the first tarot on,
08:56: or the first tarisar specimen was found
08:59: in the late 18th century in Germany.
09:02: And by the time OC Mars was digging them up 100 years later
09:05: in Kansas. They'd been discovered, but they'd also just kind of been abandoned because
09:11: there were very few follow-up fossils that were identified, right? So when OC Marsh started
09:17: to dig them up, this was a big deal. And because he was finding virtually all of the same
09:22: species, the tyrannodon, that became the common conception of what the terrassar is.
09:32: But it was coupled with an earlier named taradactyl that had been given to the entire species
09:40: or the entire group by Georges Cuvier, and I think 1812.
09:45: Yeah, and that first fossil you were talking about, no one knows, no one got credit for that for digging that thing up.
09:51: But like you said, it was in Germany, in limestone, like 150 million-year-old limestone,
09:58: in the 18th century, that eventually found its way to a man with a great name, Cocemo
10:06: Alessandro Calini.
10:07: That's a great one.
10:08: Man, when I first came across this in the Zaroid, I was like, I'm looking forward to hearing
10:13: Chuck say that guy's name.
10:14: That's him.
10:15: He was Italian, go figure, and he was a natural scientist.
10:18: And he, like many others, to follow for a long time didn't really know what it was.
10:24: since they found that in an ancient lagoon with all kinds of seafaring creatures,
10:31: he understandably thought it was a seafaring creature.
10:34: Yeah, and some of the best preserved fossils
10:37: that we have of these things are found in things
10:40: like lagoons where something happened to them,
10:43: they died suddenly, quickly fell into a body of water
10:49: which probably broke their fall a little bit.
10:51: They landed at the muck and were covered up
10:54: potentially in some anaerobic in an anaerobic state and eventually became fossilized very gently.
11:01: That's what it takes to fossilize a tarot sower.
11:05: Yeah, in Kuviae who kind of got it all wrong
11:09: by calling it a tarot actal for everyone in the future,
11:12: he was actually the same dude though who did say,
11:15: actually I think those are wings, not paddles.
11:18: Right.
11:19: And that was, you know, a big breakthrough.
11:21: Yeah, and the reason he called them tarot actals,
11:23: that means wing finger in the Greek.
11:26: Right? So, terasaur means winged lizard.
11:29: And teradactyl means wing finger,
11:32: because as we'll see, the front edge of the wing, the leading edge of the wing, is actually an extraordinarily long pinky.
11:41: Yeah, that's a good way to put it.
11:42: I think so too.
11:43: That's a good way to lead up to a break, too, don't you think?
11:46: Agreed.
11:47: Let's go.
11:48: We'll be safe for you if you're just in check.
11:54: So you should know.
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13:59: Well, now we're on the road, driving in your truck,
14:03: why not learn a thing or two from Josh and Chuck?
14:07: It's stuff you should know.
14:09: Don't you shut now!
14:11: All right.
14:14: Okay, we're back.
14:15: I feel like we kind of jumbled things up like a bunch of tarot sardines.
14:19: Sure.
14:19: So let's reset here, shall we?
14:22: Should we reset with the head?
14:25: Let's.
14:25: Ha, ha, ha.
14:27: The head crests.
14:29: If you've seen a movie like Jurassic Park and you saw what you thought was a tarot dactyl
14:35: and that and he had that beautiful looking he or she well maybe he because now they think that maybe
14:40: only the males have these head crests. These things were sort of one of the staples of many if not
14:50: all of these species but they were all really different and some fantastic looking and they're not
14:57: not exactly sure there's still a lot of debate over what they use these big crests for.
15:02: Yeah, they thought maybe they use them as a rudder in the air to steer with as they're flying around.
15:08: It does make sense.
15:10: Some people thought that they may be used them as a marine rudder.
15:14: Maybe they used them for defense because they were like made of horn and bone covered with skin.
15:19: And they think possibly they had coloring to them.
15:21: Maybe they had feathers or light fur.
15:24: They're not quite sure.
15:25: But because there's just such a lack of understanding and because
15:29: tarisar fossils are so few and far between, it's still basically anybody's guess what they were used for.
15:35: But then I think in Germany, and I'm not exactly certain when this was discovered, but a female tarisar was discovered.
15:45: And it had a, I should say, she had an egg in her oveduct still.
15:51: So it was the only tarisar to ever be positively identified by sex in the history of the world.
15:59: And she lacked that head crest.
16:02: So it really lent support to the idea that it was males only, kind of like how a peacock
16:06: has the very bright feathers and the peen does not.
16:10: They think that maybe it's the same thing or more akin to like antlers in deer or moose.
16:16: Their males are the ones that have the antlers and they think they use it maybe a little
16:19: for defense, but mostly to say, hey, I'm a dude, and I'm looking for some action,
16:25: check out the sides of my antlers.
16:26: They think it was probably the same with Tarrasar's now.
16:29: Yeah, and these things, like,
16:31: it's amazing when you look up these pictures.
16:33: Some of them are just really fantastically colored.
16:36: Some of them are really big, like that topahara, imparator.
16:42: Yeah, if you look up one Tarrasar during this episode, make it this guy.
16:47: Yeah, this is cool.
16:48: looks like it literally has a sailboat sail on top of its head.
16:52: And like if the coloring is anywhere remotely like what the artist's conceptions are, it just
16:58: must have been something to see. Yeah, that Nick Dessoris is pretty interesting too.
17:04: This one didn't seem to have any sort of a, it looked like a sail
17:10: without the sail. Like what do you call the frame of the sail? I'm sure there's some great name for it.
17:16: the timber. Sure. But these, I mean, they liken it in this article, the pump does to television
17:27: in today. And they are really big and look only clunky to me. Yeah. I mean, it'd be good
17:34: for skewering, I guess, but it could also be terrible for skewing. Like if you were hunting
17:39: or spearing fish with it, you could probably catch a lot of fish, but you couldn't get the
17:43: the fish off because it's just, these antennae were just way too tall and long.
17:48: Yeah, and then this teradustro is really, you should look at that one up too.
17:51: It's pretty amazing.
17:53: This one looks like, this one looks like if a dinosaur mated with a pelican and a toothbrush.
18:04: Yeah, so one person described it as a toothbrush with wings.
18:07: Yeah, like the lower jaw has like a thousand really long, small needle-like teeth.
18:14: and it looks like this big toothbrushy under bite.
18:16: Yeah, and it does, like when you look at it,
18:18: you're like, oh, it's clearly gotta be related to a pelican.
18:21: Again, it's not.
18:22: Pelicans and burden, birds were around during the time of dinosaurs, and if birds are anything, they're actually the real flying dinosaurs.
18:28: But it does look a lot like it,
18:30: and it makes sense that it would,
18:32: because from what we're learning about tarisaurus,
18:35: now these days, is that a lot of them were ocean-going,
18:38: that they had the goods to fly across an entire ocean
18:42: over the course of a few days, like maybe an albatross would,
18:46: and that they would fly low some of them
18:48: and skim the surface of these ancient oceans on Earth
18:53: and scoop up marine life with their jaws,
18:56: with their lower jaw, just like a pelican would.
18:59: So what's even more interesting about that
19:02: besides the idea that this is going on 100 million years ago
19:06: is that pelicans are not related to these things.
19:10: so that this trait, this behavior, this characteristic evolved more than one time.
19:16: You know what I'm saying?
19:17: I find that fascinating,
19:18: rather than saying, oh, Pelican's descended from that.
19:21: Actually, they didn't.
19:22: That's just two different branches of the same tree developing into something very similar.
19:27: Evolution and isolation.
19:28: Did that what they call that?
19:30: Yeah, or no.
19:33: Conversion evolution.
19:35: Okay.
19:37: I think, yes, it is.
19:38: It's conversion evolution.
19:39: When like a trait or behavior characteristic develops
19:43: separately among different branches of the tree
19:45: rather than developing once and then descendants all have that same trait.
19:50: Yeah, and although they did certainly love a good seafood meal,
19:55: they used to think that was sort of all they ate
19:58: and now new research suggests that they do eat
20:00: or did eat all kinds of things, even tiny dinosaurs.
20:06: Yeah, the way that they describe them now
20:08: is that it's just like birds, right?
20:09: You've got birds that eat all sorts of different things
20:12: that fill all sorts of different ecological niches.
20:15: That's what they're coming to,
20:16: to the conclusion about with tarot source,
20:19: which I mean, Chuck, this is like a huge sea change
20:22: from what it was even back in the 1950s or 60s or 70s.
20:26: Oh yeah.
20:27: And we thought there were just a few species
20:28: and it turns out there were a ton of different ones
20:31: and a lot of variety and a lot of diversity
20:33: and now we're starting to kind of get a handle on that.
20:36: Yeah, and they think they were probably able
20:38: after they hatched to fly pretty quickly
20:42: to take care of themselves pretty quickly.
20:46: And like you mentioned, they're flying, they believe now was,
20:50: they were kind of built for the long haul.
20:53: Didn't super fast,
20:55: but could, you know, like a long distance jet liner.
20:59: Right.
21:00: But some of them were small,
21:01: some of them were small as songbirds.
21:03: And I imagine they were flitty.
21:05: Yeah, I can't remember the name of one,
21:06: But there was one that was extremely tiny,
21:08: a very tiny little flying tarot sore.
21:12: Could you imagine anything more frightening
21:14: than what you would call a tarot dactyl the size of a Robin?
21:19: Yeah, I mean, or imagine a hundred of those.
21:21: Or it could look kind of cool,
21:22: like the little UFOs and batteries not included.
21:25: Remember those?
21:26: I didn't see that movie.
21:28: Do you remember the ads or anything from it though?
21:31: It was basically cocoon,
21:33: but set an attendant and with UFOs rather than the actual aliens.
21:39: Okay.
21:40: It was very similar though.
21:42: I think Donna Michi was in both maybe.
21:45: I don't know why not.
21:46: He had that market cornered.
21:48: If you can get your hands on Donna Michi,
21:50: you put him in your movie, buddy.
21:52: Yeah, for sure.
21:53: So, okay.
21:56: Where are we at, Chuck?
21:57: Well, I think we can hop over to the fact
22:02: that for many years people thought we've already mentioned birds,
22:06: but bats was the other thing that people confused them with.
22:10: There was an anatomy professor named Samuel Thomas von Summering,
22:15: and in the 1800s he incorrectly suggested that these were bats, another paleontologist named Harry Sealy,
22:23: even wrote a book called Dragons of the Sky,
22:26: in which he said birds were the descendants of these.
22:30: And it's understandable why these dudes were wrong.
22:33: They were doing the best they could.
22:35: And when you look at those wings, it looks, you know, that membrane,
22:40: it looks like it would be a bat's wing, but there are some differences.
22:44: Yeah, there's some big differences.
22:45: And like a bat in particular,
22:47: I could see confusing it with, right?
22:50: Like an ancient bat.
22:52: Because with a bat, you have four digits.
22:56: And three of those digits form the bones in the wing.
23:00: And you got one little digit wiggling free,
23:02: so a bat can climb around with its index fingers, right?
23:06: With a tarisar, you have three digits that are free.
23:10: And then the pinky, the fourth digit,
23:11: is the one that forms that long.
23:14: Sometimes 10, 20 feet long bone,
23:20: that's the front end of the wing.
23:22: Yeah, that's crazy.
23:23: But they had three fingers free.
23:27: And this is really significant because before they used to think,
23:30: and if you go back and you look at how
23:33: teradactyls were drawn in the middle of the 20th century, when they weren't in flight,
23:39: they were probably standing on their back legs.
23:42: And they realized that this is probably not how terasaur stood.
23:47: That instead, because the, their forearms
23:51: were far more powerful than their back legs, they were probably quadrupeds,
23:56: which meant that they walked on all four legs
24:00: using putting most of their weight on their front legs
24:04: with their front four arms with their three free digits.
24:08: And their wings tucked off to the side.
24:12: And they look kind of like a cartoon bulldog walks is what I'm seeing.
24:17: That's what they think now.
24:19: Like a cartoon bulldog, not a real one.
24:21: Right. Well, I mean, a real Bulldog doesn't walk quite like a cartoon Bulldog.
24:26: Cartoon Bulldogs more exaggerating pronounced, you know what I mean?
24:29: Sure. It's a cartoon.
24:31: Should we take another break? Sure.
24:32: All right, we'll do that and then we'll talk a little bit about how they fly
24:37: and other good stuff right after this.
24:39: Terror Sores.
24:41: Oh, the stuff we live for just and just
24:47: Stuff you should know.
24:52: If someone offered you the hottest savings of the year,
24:54: you'd listen right. It's Mark Devine telling you the Arizona
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25:15: Even if you want to wait until fall for installation, book it now at azwindo endore.com to get 30% off and no interest for 12 months.
25:25: New windows from the Arizona window and door store keep monsoon, dust and heat out,
25:29: but let the light in and lower your energy bills.
25:32: And here's something new.
25:33: If you've got hot spots in your house where cold air leaks out and hot air leaks in,
25:37: that's killing your home's energy efficiency and costing you money.
25:41: The Arizona Window & Door Store will now come and inspect your home's hotspots
25:46: and show you how to save money.
25:48: The Arizona Window & Door Store, A-Z Window & Door dot com.
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26:52: Well, now we're on the road driving in your truck.
26:56: Why not learn a thing or two from Josh and Chuck?
27:00: It's stuff you should know.
27:03: Don't you shut down.
27:04: All right.
27:07: All right.
27:08: So you mentioned they were quadrupedal.
27:13: Four-footed.
27:14: Four-footed.
27:15: And initially, they thought that they would like birds, because we see birds do it.
27:21: and it's probably, especially back in the 1800s,
27:23: it was maybe they were all working off the notion
27:27: of the easiest solution is probably correct.
27:32: Yeah.
27:32: Because they would see a bird hop off those back legs
27:35: and think, well, this is clearly what terror dactyls did.
27:38: Yeah, and I never thought about that,
27:40: but that's exactly what a bird does.
27:41: It jumps up in the air from its back legs and flaps its wings
27:45: and then provides lift from that point on using its wings.
27:49: Yeah.
27:49: I've never really thought about them, but that's how birds fly.
27:52: Yeah, they hop around, and if they wanna,
27:54: and it's funny, one of the other articles you sent,
27:58: one of those guys believed, the paleontalers believes that it even evolved into flying,
28:02: that they hop around on four legs,
28:05: and eventually they started jumping higher and higher, and then started flapping,
28:11: and then before you knew what they were flying.
28:12: Yeah, maybe they went from leaping to gliding to flying,
28:18: And they don't know, again, they haven't found what you would call a proto-terrissor.
28:24: Like whatever was the link between ancient reptiles and terrissars.
28:29: But that's kind of the current guess right now is that they evolved from some small light lizard that was good at jumping.
28:36: Yeah, and they're one of the big keys in finding out, and I don't think you said this, how strong their arms were.
28:43: Yeah.
28:44: That sort of was a big breakthrough because when you think of,
28:49: you think it all comes from the legs because they're jumping, but because they found more fossils,
28:56: they realized they were quadrupedal and they said,
28:58: man, they actually have incredibly strong arms and shoulders and these little tiny feet.
29:04: So not only are they quadrupedal,
29:06: but a lot of that initial hopping lift may come from the arms and not the legs at all.
29:13: So they think now what they do is basically push themselves off their front arms and legs to an extent and just basically hop up into the air and then start flapping their wings rather than like a bird jumping off of their back legs.
29:27: Is that what you mean?
29:28: Yeah, and then but most of that comes from the from the arms and shoulders rather than the feet.
29:33: Right.
29:33: And the feet I think just sort of drag behind and perhaps maybe help with steering, is that right?
29:41: Yeah, and they, so there were, you can actually divide
29:43: tarisores into two groups depending on when they, they were around.
29:47: One started, around 150 million years ago, and then one came later.
29:52: And the first groups had long tails.
29:54: So if you look at old drawings of tarot actles,
29:57: you'll frequently see them with kind of like a long, forked devil's tail, you know?
30:02: And that, it's actually kind of accurate, they think,
30:05: that the original ones had longer tails to learn to steer in the air,
30:10: but then as they got more and more adapted to flying gracefully, they lost their tails.
30:16: So the later ones, the ones that were around when the
30:20: Cretaceous period ended suddenly mostly called
30:24: Oz Dark Kids, which is not an easy word to pronounce.
30:27: No, it's not.
30:29: That they had lost their tails because they had developed other methods of changing how they fly mid-flight.
30:38: Right.
30:38: So like they, because the wing membrane was connected to their ankle from their shoulder,
30:44: with their finger kind of providing the front of the wing, if they altered the angle of
30:50: their wrist bone, or they moved their ankle in and out, it would change the actual dynamics
30:56: of their wing and they could dive and lift and do all sorts of other things.
31:00: Which is, this is a big sea change in our understanding of Taurus II, because they used
31:05: to think that they basically had to run and jump off of a cliff to gain flight or hang like that.
31:10: Yeah, because they were so weird looking and so weirdly developed in different ways, huge
31:18: heads, enormous beaks, big head crests, small puny little withered feet, you know, like
31:25: Mr. Burns' hands.
31:28: Or yeah, that's a good one.
31:30: David Cross in the Titanic segment on Mr. Show.
31:34: You're like that, right?
31:37: That's like a Tarris R's leg.
31:40: So it didn't make any sense how they flew,
31:43: but now that we're starting to learn more and more about them,
31:45: we're like, oh, actually, they had a lot of really, really interesting adaptations.
31:49: Not the least of which was their bones.
31:52: Yeah, I mean, are all of their bones hollow or just those wing bones?
31:55: All of them.
31:58: I mean, that made them incredibly light, obviously, but that also ended up being one of the problems
32:03: in trying to get fossils of these guys because they just, they were very highly
32:09: destructible. Non-fossilizable. Non-fossilizable. Do you remember our fossil episode? That was like
32:16: one of the better old ones if you asked me. Yeah, I agree. I learned a lot on that. Yeah, we should
32:22: to try that out in the selects.
32:24: That's a great idea.
32:26: That'd be a good one.
32:27: They also thought if they were on water,
32:30: like they had just had a little snack on a lake,
32:33: that they would use those wings as paddles and just get going that way,
32:37: pushing off the surface and then flapping until they were, you know,
32:40: shaking it off 20 feet above the water.
32:43: Right, exactly.
32:44: A lot like marine birds do today, right?
32:47: Mm-hmm.
32:48: So those bones, like you kind of hit it on the head,
32:52: They were extremely light, right?
32:56: They were about a millimeter thick, something like the thickness of a playing card I saw.
33:01: That's a bit nuts.
33:02: It is, super nuts, especially considering that these things were holding up like a bird
33:06: that was up to 20 feet tall, right?
33:08: Or not a bird, a tarot saw.
33:10: Yeah, not a gerodactyl.
33:11: Man, I just averted so much email chuck.
33:15: Like a millimeter thick bone wall, but the way that their bones were made, they were made
33:21: of cross sections of basically like plywood.
33:25: So they were really strong.
33:26: And then if you cut their bone in two and look down the hollow tube,
33:31: you would see that there are little struts
33:33: Chris crossing to provide even more internal support for those bones.
33:38: It's amazing.
33:39: So you could have a 20-foot tall tarisar
33:43: that could actually fly because it was that light.
33:46: I saw one of the, as dark kids,
33:51: was something like had a 20 foot wingspan,
33:54: but it probably didn't weigh any more than 20 pounds.
33:58: Yeah, and some of these, I mean,
33:59: what were the largest ones, like 35, 40 feet in wingspan?
34:03: Yeah, so about like 10 to 15 meters in wingspan,
34:10: like the size of like a jet plane, like a fighter jet.
34:14: I just flew in my first private jet.
34:16: Oh yeah, how was it?
34:19: You know what?
34:20: First of all, I've always wanted to fly on a private jet,
34:23: but never thought I would have caused to, because unless you're extremely wealthy,
34:30: you only do that if you get invited to for some strange reason.
34:34: Right, like you don't just book it.
34:36: You should be on high alert
34:38: if you're some wealthy person invites you on the private jet.
34:42: And it was awesome.
34:42: It was as awesome as you think.
34:45: And the most awesome part of it was the, just the sheer lack of hassle.
34:51: Yeah.
34:52: Like I parked my car at the little tiny airport here
34:56: into Cab County, walked across the parking lot
34:59: and into the lobby and there's literally a guy
35:01: standing there of a captain and he was like, are you drunk?
35:06: And I said yes and he said, right this way.
35:08: And he walked out the back door and there's a plane and they say, watch your head.
35:14: you get on it and he says, you ready to go?
35:17: That's, was it just you?
35:19: No, no, no.
35:19: That was like five of us on an eight-seater.
35:23: Everybody was waiting for you.
35:25: Yeah, it was the last person to get there.
35:26: And I was a little stressed,
35:27: but then I thought, wait a minute,
35:29: that's the other perk is they don't leave you.
35:31: Yeah, you're like, there, I mean, there's a schedule, but it's not like, really late.
35:37: But it was cool.
35:37: I mean, the one we were on was,
35:40: I mean, it's not roomy,
35:41: So it's not like Air Force 1 or anything.
35:45: Like you feel like you can just walk around.
35:46: But like when I was standing, I'm five foot 10.
35:50: And if I said completely straight,
35:53: my head would brush the ceiling a little bit.
35:56: But, and you're just like, ugh, private jets.
36:00: But no TSA, like you just walk on, they fly you there
36:06: and then you get off and you're right there.
36:08: It's like this, just the lack of hassle.
36:10: And all I could think of was like, man,
36:12: it must be great to be a billionaire.
36:15: Sure.
36:15: And never have to deal with an airport again.
36:17: Yeah.
36:18: Yeah, it was kind of cool.
36:19: But then also once you're up there, you're kind of like,
36:21: eh, well, you know, it's not like life changing.
36:25: Yeah, you, you me actually, I've never flown on one.
36:27: You me flew on one and she said basically the exact same thing you did.
36:31: That just the lack of hassle and how fast you get somewhere.
36:35: Yeah.
36:36: Is just, just beyond amazing.
36:39: I mean, it takes away hours and hours of airport crap.
36:42: I know.
36:43: You start to develop like that terrible sensation
36:46: where your eyes hurt for some weird reason,
36:48: even though you haven't even gotten on the plane yet.
36:51: Like, there's a lot of stuff that I'd be happy to leave behind.
36:54: Yeah, and it also when you're going to take off
36:57: because it's small, it feels like you're going as fast
37:01: as you're going, whereas in a jumbo jet, it really doesn't.
37:04: Right.
37:05: Like I was kind of like, man, we're going fast.
37:08: So, oh, hey, so speaking of Yumi and flying, I have an update.
37:13: Okay.
37:14: Do you remember the story about the Russia visas that we failed to get?
37:18: Oh, sure.
37:19: I told her that I told that story and she was like, you said we forgot.
37:23: And I was like, yeah, we did, right?
37:24: And she's like, no, we asked like five different people, five different times.
37:28: And we're told we didn't need visas.
37:30: So I wanted to let you know, Chuck, that we actually are as buttoned up as you think.
37:35: We were just misinformed.
37:37: We got that great email from a new listener that was like,
37:40: listen to some dumb story about some guy and dumb visa.
37:44: I was like, oh, welcome to the show, brother.
37:47: Yeah.
37:48: You should probably, uh, there's the exit door.
37:51: Was that that guy, that one guy?
37:52: Uh-huh.
37:53: Oh, okay.
37:54: Yeah, he's very turned off by your aside about your visa story.
37:57: Yeah, whatever.
37:58: Uh, so anyway, thanks for indulging the private jet convo.
38:01: Yeah, I'll bet that guy loved the private jet aside.
38:03: It'll probably never happen again,
38:05: but it was basically like riding around on a tarisaur.
38:08: So that's how I wedged it in there.
38:10: Nice work.
38:11: That is nice.
38:13: So I'm trying to think of what else.
38:16: Like, tarisaur's kind of bring out the little entertain-year-old in me.
38:19: I don't know if you've noticed, but I'm wearing my little outdoor archaeologist boots.
38:24: Nice see that.
38:25: White pull up crew socks.
38:28: And I'm just a total little nerd.
38:30: You keep dusting everything in here too.
38:32: I'm not even like one of those dinosaur nerds, but just getting into researching dinosaur,
38:37: does it do that to you too?
38:38: It just kind of draws out like the little kid.
38:40: I think so, and I think probably because at least
38:44: when you and I were growing up,
38:45: I feel like public schools just like did such a poor job of talking about these periods.
38:51: Oh yeah.
38:52: You know?
38:53: Yeah, I remember that,
38:54: but also remember dinosaurs being kind of huge in the 80s.
38:59: Yeah. at least they were in Ohio.
39:03: Does that know how you'll think?
39:04: I don't know, I'm trying to remember.
39:06: I mean, Jurassic Park obviously changed everything as far as.
39:09: Yeah.
39:10: But when was that? 90s.
39:11: Yeah, early 90s.
39:12: Yeah, but I feel like dinosaurs are pretty popular among the kids before that.
39:16: Maybe I'm wrong, maybe I hit my head and don't realize it.
39:19: I don't know.
39:20: I know kids, I mean, my daughter loves dinosaurs, so it's a thing.
39:22: Yeah, it definitely is a thing.
39:25: And it's getting to be even more of a thing
39:27: the more we learn about dinosaurs too.
39:30: which is somebody called the 21st century, the golden age of tarisar research.
39:37: So they're expecting big things from the field.
39:40: Yeah, and like you said, hopefully they can find that proto-tarisar and that's when the community
39:47: really gets all excited when they can make those links.
39:50: Hey, you know, it's speaking to the community.
39:52: I read this article in National Geographic and God bless them.
39:57: I can't remember the guy who wrote it,
39:59: but it's called why tarasars were the weirdest wonders on wings.
40:03: Yeah, it was a good one.
40:04: It was a great article.
40:05: And the guy basically just got into all like the dirty laundry of the tarasar paleontology community.
40:13: And apparently they're very well known among paleontologists for just despising each other.
40:18: Like the tarasar paleontologists don't like each other, talk smack about each other publicly,
40:24: and just snipe at one another a lot.
40:27: which just makes the whole thing even that much more fascinating, you know?
40:30: Like the real competitive and real back bitey.
40:33: Interesting.
40:34: Yeah.
40:35: And in this case, that's a good thing.
40:36: Yeah, because they keep pushing them on another.
40:40: Agreed.
40:41: You got anything else?
40:43: Are we doing with taris hours?
40:46: Uh, I don't have anything else.
40:47: I don't think.
40:48: Okay.
40:49: Well, if you want to know more about taris hours,
40:51: go to your local natural history museum and say,
40:55: Hey, tell me about that tarot actor.
40:57: See if you can stump him.
40:59: And since I said stump, it's time for listener mail.
41:02: BELL RINGS
41:04: I'm going to call this one.
41:06: Which one is this one?
41:08: Oh, foot binding.
41:11: I believe we did this in a select episode.
41:14: It's one of our older ones, but a really good one, I think.
41:17: Agreed.
41:18: And this goes like this.
41:19: Hey guys, I'm assuming to be grad student
41:22: from Guangdong, China, and have been a listener for a couple of years now.
41:27: This is my first time writing in.
41:29: And it's about foot binding.
41:30: I talked to my grandmother after listening.
41:33: Remembering she told me that her grandmother had bound her feet.
41:36: I asked if great grandma had trouble walking.
41:40: And she said she had never even wobbled a little bit,
41:42: because it turns out she never made her own little shoes.
41:46: She just bought toddler shoes for herself.
41:49: No, no.
41:51: That's called making lemons.
41:54: No, that's called making lemonade out of lemons with your feet.
41:57: That's right.
41:58: She said, great, great grandma came from a wealthy family in bound feet.
42:01: For more of a symbol of your family wealth,
42:04: meaning you don't have to do farming chores,
42:06: and catering to the male foot fetish at that time.
42:09: We are not exactly sure when she was born,
42:11: but we do know that when her daughter, my great grandmother,
42:13: was born in 1914, she made sure that her feet were never bound.
42:18: She also put all of her kids through high school, which is very remarkable back then.
42:21: Oh yeah.
42:22: Foot binding is certainly not something that I am proud of.
42:25: To think that I'm just five generations away
42:27: from having to get my own feet bound,
42:29: as opposed to sitting here writing you guys right now,
42:31: it just says to me how far we've gone.
42:34: Thanks for the show.
42:35: By the way, in the draft podcast,
42:37: Josh was having trouble pronouncing Q-I-N-G.
42:40: The honesty.
42:42: Q may be roughly pronounced as T-S.
42:46: Not exactly the same, so just say, sing next time that would do.
42:51: I didn't even think I tried that one.
42:53: I tried every other phoneme except for sing.
42:56: And this is Best Regards from Ruowy.
43:00: Thank you very much Ruowy.
43:01: That's pretty cool and like nice sense of perspective too.
43:05: Okay.
43:05: If you want to get in touch with us
43:07: with an awesome story like Ruowy did,
43:09: you can catch up with us on social media.
43:12: Just go to our website, stuffyshino.com,
43:15: and you will find all of our social med links there.
43:17: And if you want, send us a good old fashioned email.
43:19: Wrap it up, smack it on the bottom, and send it off to StuffPodcast at HowStuffWorks.com.
43:29: Stuff you should know is a production of I Heart Radio.
43:31: For more podcasts, my heart radio, visit the I Heart Radio app.
43:35: Apple podcasts are wherever you listen to your favorite shows.
43:45: Beach Vacation shouldn't have to break the bank.
43:48: That's why you can trust cheap Caribbean vacations to find you the hottest deals on all
43:51: inclusive beach vacays, so you can have more fun on a fabulous tropical getaway or less money.
43:57: Book an all-inclusive getaway to any re-u resort in Mexico, the Caribbean, or Central
44:01: America, and unlock $400 instant savings just by booking with cheap Caribbean.com.
44:07: See, we told you that you could trust Chief Caribbean to find the best beach deals, save more at cheapcaribbean.com.
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